Chhath Puja Process, Items, History, Dates, Vidhi, Prasad, Recipes Geet

Chhat Puja Process, Items, History, Dates, Vidhi, Prasad, Recipes Geet

Chhath Puja is one of the Hindu festivals, quite popular in the Eastern Indian states of Bihar and Jharkhand as well as in Nepal. The word ‘Chhath’ means ‘sixth’ as this auspicious festival is celebrated on the 6th day or ‘Shasthi’ i.e. lunar fortnight of Kartik (October – November) according to the Hindu calendar. This festival is immediately followed after Diwali, the festival of lights. Chhath is a special festival dedicated to Sun God and marked by worshipping Surya by the riverside. Devotees believe that Sun God /Suryasasthi will bless their life with joy, prosperity, and harmony.

Also Check: Durga Puja দুর্গা পূজা 2021–2021 | The Collection of HD Images Download

History of Chhath Puja

It is said that the rituals of Chhatth Puja 2021 may even date back to the ancient era, in which it finds a mention in the ancient Vedas, as the Rigveda features hymns adulating the Lord Surya and exemplifies similar customs. The custom also finds a reference in the Sanskrit Epic poem of Mahabharata in which Draupadi is described as observing the same rituals.

According to the poem, Draupadi and Pandavas- the rulers of Indraprastha (today’s Delhi), performed the rituals of Chhath Puja on the recommendation of noble sage Dhaumya. Through the adulation of Lord Surya (Sun), Draupadi not just came out of all her troubles, but also helped the Pandavas regain their lost kingdom later.

The yogic or scientific history of Chhath Puja dates back to the Vedic times. The rishis of yesteryears used this method to remain alive without any external intake of food and were able to obtain energy from the sunlight. This was done through the rituals of the Chhath Puja.

Also Read: Collection of Chhath Puja 2021 Messages & Wishes in Bihari for Whatsapp

Another history reflecting the significance of Chhath Puja is the story of Lord Rama. It is believed that Lord Rama & Mata Sita had kept fast together and offered puja to the Lord Surya in the month of Kartik (in between October and December) in Shukla Paksha during their coronation after returning to Ayodhya from an exile of 14 years. Since then Chhath Puja became the important and traditional festival in the Hindu religion. It started celebrating every year in the same month on the same date by people in the Hindu religion.

When is Chhath Puja?

Dedicated to Lord Shiva, Chhat Puja is one of the religious festivals of India. If you are juggling with dates and pondering when is Chhat Puja, then it is to inform you that this year the festival is going to be celebrated on 26th October 2021. During the four long-days of Chhath Puja, devotees worship Lord Surya.

During the festival, fasting is observed by lady folks or married women for the well-being of their sons and the happiness of family members. This festival is mainly celebrated in the state of Bihar and adjoining Nepal with great fervor and fun.

The festival takes place for four days, the very first day of Chhath is called Nahay Khay. On this day, the devotees take a holy dip into the water, especially into the river Ganga and take only single meal on this day (the women folk who observe the fast).

The second day of the festival is called Kharna. On this day, the fasting without any drop of water is observed from the sunrise to the sunset. The fast is broken in the evening just after the sunset and making as well as offering food to the Sun God. After having Prasad on the second day, the third day’s fasting begins.

On the third day, a day-long fast is observed without taking water. The third day is the main day of Chhat Puja known as Sanjhiya Ghat. Offering Arghya to the setting sun is the essence of this day. It is the only time of the year on which people worship the setting Sun and offer Arghya. The third day’s fasting goes on throughout the night. On the next day after sunrise the Parna begins.

On the fourth or can say the final day of Chhath, people offer Arghya to the rising Sun, which is called Usha Argya. After Arghya, the 36 hours long fast is broken.

Also Check: [Updated] Durga Puja 2021 Dates with Calendar with Images Free Download

Chhath Puja Vidhi

 Below mentioned is a step-by-step guide to Chhath Puja Vidi:
  • First of all take a sacred piece of cloth and spread it over the holy area or the puja sthan.
  • Place the idols of Lord Ganesha and Lord Surya on the red cloth.
  • Start with the puja/worship process; put Roli (vermillion) on Lord Ganesha and Lord Surya’s forehead.
  • Put Chawal (rice) on the forehead of both idols. Make sure the pieces of rice aren’t broken.
  • Lit incense sticks (Agarbatti) and wave gently in front of the idols.
  • Lit the Deepak of ghee in front of the idols and offer Prasad like fruits to Lord Ganesha and Lord Surya.
  • Take a little Chandan (sandal) in your mouth and keep it until sun rises.
  • After taking the sandal in your mouth you can either stand still or sit till the sun rises.
  • If possible visit a Surya Mandir (Sun Temple).
  • After sunrise, perform the same puja.
  • Offer holy water to the rising sun.
  • Distribute the khajur (date) among your family members and friends.

Kartiki Chhath Puja

Kartiki Chhath Puja is one of the major Hindu festivals celebrated mainly in the states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Kolkata and West Bengal. It is an ancient festival, dedicated to the Sun God. As the festival is celebrated in Kartik month on Shukla Shashthi, it is called Kartiki Chhath. This falls usually in the month of October and November as per Gregorian English Calendar. As the days of Kartik month are pleasant, this celebration is observed with great fanfare and gaiety.

For four days, the whole environment goes vibrant with Chhath songs and rituals that represent the ancient cultures of India.

Chhath ka Prasad

During Chhath Puja, a special type of Prasad is made using varieties of grains. Although, the celebration needs different types of grains, fruits, spices and various local products, some of them are available only due to the necessity of Chhath Puja.

The most important Prasad of Chhath Puja includes “Thekua”, which is made of flour, sugar or jaggery. This special type of sweet pudding is made either in the night of Kharna or in the morning or Sandhya Ghat (Evening Arghya or Offering). The vratti and other family members accompany each other either in the kitchen, on rooftop or at a cleaned place in the house to proceed with the Prasad making ritual.

The process of making Thekua or Chhath Prasad

Thekua is made of whole wheat flour (gehun ka aata/ maida), raisins (kishmish), dry coconut (sukha nariyal), jaggery (gur)/ sugar (chini), and ghee or refined oil. All these materials are purchased specifically for this festival beforehand.

A watery solution of jaggery or sugar and water is made, which is either sprinkled or added into the flour to form semi-dough (not too creamy/soft not too dry). Those involved in making Prasad take out a lump of dough, roll it and press it against the sancha (wooden mould or embroidered wooden surface). Before pressing it against the wooden surface, the preheat oil or ghee is poured on the sancha so that the dough doesn’t get sticky.

This flattened piece of dough is then deep fried in the oil or ghee till golden brown.

Also Check: Why Durga Puja is So Special in West Bengal?

Other stuff and materials for Chhath Puja Prasad

A small cultivation product namely “Suthuni” (a kind of tuber fruit) is found in the market only during Chhath Puja. Likewise, the other items as Prasad include Sugarcane with green leaves, Aruwa, Paddy (Sathi Dhan Variety which is mostly black), Lemon (mainly Kaghzi nimbu), Gagal (a variety of Big Lemon-species), Apples, Orange, Bodi, Cardamom, green Ginger, Coconut, Banana, Ghee and more.

Besides, at various places people make gulgule (a type of sweet puddings or sweet fritters types) and puris to include in Chhath Prasad.

Chhath Puja Geet / Songs

Chhath Puja geet or songs are one of the best highlights of this festival that augment the importance of Chhath Puja. Here are some most popular Chhath Puja Geet.

“Hey Chhathi Maiya”

Patna ke ghat par humhu arajiya debai, he chhathi maiya

Hum na jaeeb dusar ghaat dekhab ye chhathi maiya – 2

Sup lel thad bad dom dominiya, dekhab hey chhathi maiya

Wahi supi arag devay, dekhab hey chhathi maiya – 2

Ful lele thad bad maliya maliniya , dekhab hey chhathi maiya

Wahi fule harwa gothay, dekhab hey chhathi maiya – 2

Kela seb nariyal kin gayini bajariya, dekhab hey chhathi maiya

Wattahi lagal badi der, dekhab hey chhathi maiya – 2

Bhul chuk humari maiya, rakhab na dhiyaniya, dekhab hey chhathi maiya

Humaro aragiya dehab maan , dekhab hey chhathi maiya -2

Patna ke ghat par humhu arajiya debai, he chhathi maiya

Hum na jaeeb dusar ghaat dekhab ye chhathi maiya – 2

Nariyal je farlai ghavad me sa…

Nariyal je farlai ghavad me sa
Ohpe sugaa merhraye
Uje khabare janiebo adit sa
Sugaa dehi chotiyaaye
Marbauge sugaa dhanukh sa
Sugaa gire murjhaaye
Uje kerwaa je farlaiye ghavad sa
Ohpe sugaa merhraye
Uje khabare janiebo adit sa
Sugaa dehi chotiyaaye
Marbauge sugaa dhanukh sa
Sugaa gire murjhaaye
Amrudwaa je farlaiye ghavad sa
Ohpe sugaa merhraye
Uje khabare janiebo adit sa
Sugaa dehi chotiyaaye
Marbauge sugaa dhanukh sa
Sugaa gire murjhaaye
Uje sebva je farlaiye ghavad sa
Ohpe sugaa merhraye
Uje khabare janiebo adit sa
Sugaa dehi chotiyaaye
Marbauge sugaa dhanukh sa
Sugaa gire murjhaaye
Sab je far farlaiye je ghavad sa
Ohpe sugaa merhraye
Uje khabare janiebo adit sa
Sugaa dehi chotiyaaye
Uje Marbauge sugaa dhanukh sa
Sugaa gire murjhaaye
Uje sugani je rahle je yug sa
Adit hoye na sahay, Adit hoye na sahay
Dev hoye na sahay
Uje khabare janiebo adit sa
Sugaa dehi chotiyaaye
Marbauge sugaa dhanukh sa
Sugaa gire murjhaaye

Chhath Puja Process

Chhath Puja is performed by below mentioned processes:

The very first day starts with bath and eat that marks the beginning of Chhath Puja.

The second day of this festival involves a day long fast or vrat till evening puja or worship. On this day devotees or vrattis do not take food and water until the evening worshipping of Chhathi Maiya. Rasiao is made with puris or chapattis as Prasad which is offered to the Chhathi Maiya during evening worship this day and with the same Prasad, vrattis break their day long fast.

Third day involves preparation for Puja Samagri, Prasad and offerings for Evening Arghya to Sun God.

Last and final process is to offer Suryodhaya or Bihaniya Arghya to Sun God. This day the rising sun is worshiped, devotees break their 36-hour long fast and then Prasad is distributes among family and friends.

Chhath Puja Recipe

Chhath Puja, besides being known for the ultimate purity practice people take during fast, is known for some of the best recipes too. Here is a list of Chhath Puja recipes:

Chaawal ki Kheer


  • Basmati rice (shorter variety) 200gm
  • Milk 2 and 1/2 liter in quantity
  • Elachi 1/2 teaspoonful
  • Sugar as per taste
  • One pinch of saffron powder (optional)
  • 2 teaspoonfuls of raisins (dried grapes) & cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale)


  • Soak and wash the rice in water. Now boil the rinsed rice in milk at low flame. Stir continuously or else the rice will get sticky to the base of the pot.
  • When the rice is cooked, add sugar and mix well. If needed add saffron or else leave it.
  • After a consistent sticky combination of rice and milk, take it out of the flame and let it cool
  • Garnish kheer with cashew nuts and raisins and serve.

Lal Saag


  • A bunch of Lal Saag
  • Red chilli – 1 or 2 whole
  • Turmeric -1/3 teaspoon
  • Ginger (1/2′) – chopped finely
  • Salt – to taste.
  • Cooking oil – 1 tea spoon


  • Clean the leaves, remove the hard stalks and chop the saag roughly.
  • Heat oil in a pan; add ginger and red chilli. Saute the ingredients on medium flame for a few minutes.
  • Now add chopped lal saag and sauté for a a couple for minutes.
  • Turn the heat at low flame, add turmeric and add well. Now cover the lid and cook for at least 10 minutes.
  • Keep checking in between and if found sticky and dry, add a little water.
  • Now add salt to taste, sauté for a minute.
  • After a few minutes take out the saag and serve hot with parathas and chapattis.



  • 500 gm Whole Wheat Flour
  • 300 gm Jaggery (Gur) or sugar
  • 2 tbsp Coconut, chopped
  • Ghee (or Vegetable Oil)
  • 4-5 Green Cardamom, peeled & mashed
  • 1.5 cup Water
  • Saancha (Vessel to make)


  • Make a watery solution by mixing sugar or jaggery, water & green cardamom.
  • Add about 4 tbsp of ghee to the solution prepared and mix it to the wheat flour with chopped coconut and make dough.
  • Take a piece of dough and make a ball. Now press it against the saancha to make thekua.
  • Once the thekua has taken the imprint of the saancha, deep fry it in ghee till golden brown.
  • Filter out ghee and put thekua aside.
  • Now the thekua is ready for Chhath Puja.

Kohnda or Sita Phal ki Sabjee


  • Pumpkin/ Kohnda finely chopped
  • Ginger
  • Coriander
  • Powder
  • Turmeric
  • Garam masala
  • Asafetida
  • Fenugreek seeds
  • Sugar
  • Raw mango powder


  • Heat the oil in a pan, add fenugreek, asafoetida seeds and cumin seeds.
  • When seeds start to splutter, add ginger.
  • Now add pumpkin and green chillies, stir fry until the pumpkin becomes tender.
  • Add salt, garam masala, turmeric, chilli powder, and cook the ingredients over medium flame.
  • Lower the flame and stir 3-4 times until the ingredients become tender.
  • Now add amchoor powder and cook for a few minutes.
  • Garnish it with coriander leaves and serve hot.

Chhath Puja Items

Find the list of Chhath Puja items below:

  • Coin (Dakshina)
  • Camphor (Kapoor)
  • Cotton Balls (Batti)
  • Deepak (Lamp)
  • Ghee
  • Fruits
  • Holy Water
  • Idol of Lord Surya
  • Idol of Lord Ganesha
  • Incense Sticks (Agarbatti)
  • Kumkum (Roli)
  • Khajur (Date)
  • Matchbox (Maachis)
  • Panchamrit
  • Paan (Betal Leafs)
  • Puja Thali
  • Red Sandal (Laal Chandan)
  • Red Cloth
  • Sandal (Chandan)
  • Rice (Chawal/Akshat)
  • Supari (Betal Nuts)
  • Vrat Katha Book
  • White Flowers
  • Wheat (Anaaj)

Also Check: Durga Puja 2021 Dates😍😍 & The Schedule of Durga Puja Calendar Dates

Chaiti Chhath Puja

Chaiti Chhath or Chota Chhath is celebrated in the summer season (March-April), on Chaitra Shashthi, a few days after Holi festival. As the festival is celebrated in the month of “Chaitra” as per Hindu calendar, it is called Chaiti/ Chaitra Chhath.

Just like the Kartik Chhath, this festival is also celebrated for four days including- Naha Khay, Kharna, Sanjhiya/ Sandhya Ghat and Bhorwa Ghat or Paran Chhath.

The very first day of Chhath Puja is called Nahay Khay that literally means bath and eat. On this day, vratti or devotees take a holy dip or bath in the river Ganges and follow the path of self-resistance from the worldly things. On this day the women folks who observe the fast, take only one mean all through the day, mainly kaddu bhat with dal (only chana or mung dal). The meal is prepared only in soil or bronze utensils.

The second day of the festival is called Kharna, Lohanda or Barauna. On this day female folks observe a fast for the day. In the evening, they prepare special Prasad kheer (cooked rice in jaggery or milk), puris and fruits. This Prasad is offered to the Chhathi Maiya and later the devotee breaks her fast by eating this Prasad. Later on, the Prasad is distributed among family and friends.

The third day of Chhath Puja is called Sandhya Ghat (Evening Offering). The whole day goes in preparing delicacies and Prasad. The Vratti and family members wear new cloths and gather either at the banks of a river, pool or pond. They site there for one to two hours and worship Sun God, sing Chhath songs. Just after the sun sets, they offer evening arghya or Sandhya Arghya to perform the rituals of the day.

On the last day (Paran Day) or Bhorwa Ghat (Morning Arghya) vratti again get ready and go to the banks of the river, pond and pool. The offerings are offered to the rising Sun. the Festival of Chhath ends this day. Vrattis after returning to home, break their fast by taking ginger and water followed by delicious food.

CHECK OUT:  Collection of Chhath Puja [year] Messages & Wishes in Bihari for Whatsapp
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